Go back to all articles

Choosing the Right End-effector

End-of-Arm Tooling (usually referred to as EOAT or EOA tooling) refers to the material handling application on a piece of industrial equipment. The EOAT manipulates the product by using different techniques to hold it, depending on the product’s characteristics. 

There are a lot of different options for EOAT, and it can be a bit confusing to understand at times. Here are a few factors to consider in your decision:

Type of products handled by your EOAT

What kind of products does your line handle? Loose bundles? Big cases? Uneven trays? Because of this diversity in packaging, companies can find it difficult to know exactly what solutions best fit their needs. There are, after all, a lot of details to consider when choosing the right EOAT. For example, is the product being handled made of plastic or carton? Or is it polywoven bags? All those products need to be handled in a different way to reach the highest level of efficiency. Think of it this way: You wouldn’t use a magnetic tooling for a polywoven bag, right?

Weight of products handled by your EOAT

Another factor to consider is the product’s weight: the wrong gripper or type of clamp can damage or ruin your product. Grippers can be designed to fit your production line’s specific needs and can be customized to work with highly unique products.

Is a customized EOAT right for you?

A gripper customized for your production can give you peace of mind and increase your production’s efficiency. However, a custom EOAT can be quite expensive depending on what your requirements are.

Many other factors can influence your choice: Space constraints, configuration, and many more. Keep in mind that EOA tooling is one of the most essential components for an efficient palletizing process. That’s why we’ve created this comprehensive guide that outlines the different types of grippers available on the market. However, be aware that, as products become increasingly diversified, custom end-of-arm tooling is also a good option to consider.

Every EOAT option, listed and explained.


When clamping the product with compression force isn’t possible, a vacuum gripper is a good option. Vacuum grippers are very useful when your product is not rigid enough or if you want products to be palletized without any space between them. You can also pick up many types of products with a single gripper, and vacuum grippers deal well with inaccurate positioning. Another bonus: Vacuum grippers are one of the most budget-friendly solutions available on the market.

If you’re considering vacuum grippers, be sure to keep these points in mind: Vacuum grippers are sensitive to dusty and dirty environments, require compressed air (which adds to your energy costs), and their performance will be affected by the surface texture and porosity of the product.


Clamp gripper - End effector

A clamp gripper uses two mechanisms that clamp to the sides of the bag. This kind of end-of-arm tooling works perfectly for slip-top cartons or any heavyweight application where a topside pick is impossible. On the other hand, the clamp gripper requires more maintenance than the vacuum gripper.


Finger gripper - End effector

The finger gripper is considered a hybrid of the clamp and the fork gripper. It holds the load from the sides but also uses tines that extend under the product. As a result, this gripper holds the product more securely, so it’s useful for more fragile loads that need that extra support. By having the features of the clamp gripper, the finger gripper is quicker and lighter than the fork alone but demands specially designed conveyors.



Do you have open-top containers or oversized bags that must be picked from the bottom? Don’t look any further. Designed to pick products from a roller conveyor, the fork gripper is the most flexible solution available. It’s designed specifically for products that require pick-up from the bottom and works best for bags that do not have a sufficiently flat surface for pick-up.


Magnetic gripper - End effector

The magnetic gripper comes into play when the object being handled is made of ferrous material, like cans, for example. It grasps product quickly and allows easy handling of a wide range of product shapes. The magnetic gripper also allows multiple product picking at the same time. In addition, depending on the size of the tooling, you can even grab an entire layer of product.


Layer gripper - End effector

Some production lines need to avoid the risk of touching and moving packs already positioned. This is where the layer gripper enters the equation: Two servo-driven rollers push against the entire pallet layer from opposite sides, thereby lifting the package up and rolling it onto two symmetrical carrier plates.


Pail gripper - End effector

Like its name, the pail gripper is used to handle pails by grasping the top of the pails.


Ring gripper - End effector

The round-shaped gripper works by closing around the product and handling it from the top. This end-of-arm tooling is best suited for drums and other big, round containers.


servo-driven end effector

A servo-controlled gripper controls the movement of the jaws by using electric input from the robot controller. It can control the position of the gripper finder, detecting grip and making it possible to determine if a part has been picked up by the gripper. Because air lines aren’t required, you can save a lot on power and maintenance. It’s also the best solution for a clean environment.


Pallet and slip sheet end effector

These grippers handle pallets and slip sheets. This type of gripper can also be added to another gripper so you have a more complete solution that handles pallets, slip sheets, and products, all with the same tooling. It usually requires a supplier to develop a custom solution built specifically for your needs and your line.



If you have specific needs that aren’t covered by the grippers we’ve just described, then a custom solution may meet those needs the best. There are virtually no limits to what can be built. In fact, we like to say that there are just as many grippers out there as there are products on the market.

Talk to one of our experts to find out which end-of-arm tooling is best for you!